diego garcia chagos archipelago

[3] In 1964, only 3 of a population of 963 were unemployed. [111] No terrestrial plant species are of any conservation-related concern at present. [129], British Forces British Indian Ocean Territories (BFBIOT) is the official name for the British Armed Forces deployment at the Permanent Joint Operating Base (PJOB) on Diego Garcia, in the British Indian Ocean Territory. Neither party gave notice to terminate and the agreement remains in force until 2036". Diego Garcia became a colony of the UK after the Napoleonic Wars as part of the Treaty of Paris (1814), and from 1814 to 1965 it was administered from Mauritius. Home to more than 1,000 US troops and staff, it has been … [39], Neither the US nor the UK recognises Diego Garcia as being subject to the African Nuclear Weapons Free Zone Treaty, which lists BIOT as covered by the treaty. [133] The value has been proven many times, with the island providing an "unsinkable aircraft carrier" for the United States during the Iranian revolution, the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, Operation Desert Fox, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation Iraqi Freedom. In addition, much of the lagoon waters are protected wetlands as a designated Ramsar site, and large parts of the island are nature preserves. Although the Cantino planisphere (1504) and the Ruysch map (1507) clearly delineate the Maldive Islands, giving them the same names, they do not show any islands to the south which can be identified as the Chagos archipelago. In 1965, the administration of the archipelago was transferred from Mauritius, in somewhat dubious circumstances, shortly before Mauritius gained independence. [25], In 1914, the island was visited by the German light cruiser SMS Emden halfway through its commerce-raiding cruise during the early months of World War I. Diego Garcia provides suitable foraging and nesting habitat for both the hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and the green turtle (Chelonia mydas). He said that he had heard from three US intelligence sources that Diego Garcia was used as "a transit site where people were temporarily housed, let us say, and interrogated from time to time" and, "What I heard was more along the lines of using it as a transit location when perhaps other places were full or other places were deemed too dangerous or insecure, or unavailable at the moment". Most inhabitants of Diego Garcia through the period 1793–1971 were plantation workers, but also included Franco-Mauritian managers, Indo-Mauritian administrators, Mauritian and Seychellois contract employees, and in the late 19th century, Chinese and Somali employees. An island called "Don Garcia" appears on the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum of Abraham Ortelius (Antwerp 1570), together with "Dos Compagnos", slightly to the north. Quiz: Can you name this TV sitcom by its theme song lyric? Diego Garcia's seabird community includes thriving populations of species which are rapidly declining in other parts of the Indian Ocean. Conspiracy theories aside, international opinion is clearly aligned against the U.S. and Britain. The horizontal structure of each lens is influenced by variations in the type and porosity of the subsurface deposits, which on Diego Garcia are minor. The almost constant breeze keeps conditions reasonably comfortable. The Chagossians & their Struggle. First, the island nation of Mauritius claims the Chagos Archipelago (which is coterminous with the BIOT), including Diego Garcia. [3]:par 23 These people were employed as contract farm workers on primarily coconut plantations owned by the Chagos-Agalega company. The atoll forms a nearly complete rim of land around a lagoon, enclosing 90% of its perimeter, with an opening only in the north. The Portuguese explored Diego Garcia in the 1500s (it is named for a Portuguese navigator). A fourth, Anniversary Island, 1 km (1,100 yards) southwest of Middle Island, appears as just a sand bar on satellite images. [56], In 2004, US Navy recruitment literature described Diego Garcia as being one of the world's best-kept secrets, boasting great recreational facilities, exquisite natural beauty, and outstanding living conditions.[57]. Those who left the island—either for vacation or medical purposes—were not allowed to return, and those who stayed could obtain only restricted food and medical supplies. [50][51] Today, Chagossians remain highly impoverished and are living as "marginalized" outsiders on the island of Mauritius and the Seychelles. Nothing is known of pre-European contact history of Diego Garcia. [8], On 23 June 2017, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) voted in favour of referring the territorial dispute between Mauritius and the UK to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in order to clarify the legal status of the Chagos Islands archipelago in the Indian Ocean. [22] Following the departure of the British, the French colony of Mauritius began marooning lepers on Diego Garcia,[22] and in 1793, the French established a coconut plantation using slave labour, which also exported cordage made from coconut fibre, and sea cucumbers, known as a delicacy in the Orient.[23]. It now hosts a US military base covering two thirds of the island. Diego Garcia lies at the southernmost tip of the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge, a vast underwater mountain range[7] with peaks consisting of coral reefs, atolls, and islands comprising Lakshadweep, the Maldives, and the Chagos Archipelago. Vertical wells can cause salt upcoming into the lens, and overextraction will reduce freshwater pressure resulting in lateral intrusion by seawater. The transceiver is operated remotely from Andrews Air Force Base and Grand Forks Air Force Base and is locally maintained by NCTS FE personnel. Diego Garcia, the largest island in the Chagos archipelago in the Indian Ocean, is the site of a major US military base and was leased from Britain in 1966 [Reuters] [citation needed] The island is also labelled "Don Garcia" on Mercator's Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigatium Emendate (Duisburg 1569). The base’s location near Asia, the Middle East and Africa makes it an irreplaceable cornerstone of America’s ability to project power around the world. From December through March, winds are generally westerly around 6 knots (11 km/h). [127], Four reptiles and six cetaceans are endangered and may or may not be found on or around Diego Garcia:[128] [73] In October 2007, the Foreign Affairs Select Committee of the British Parliament announced that it would launch an investigation of continued allegations of a prison camp on Diego Garcia, which it claimed were twice confirmed by comments made by retired United States Army General Barry McCaffrey. finback whale (Balaeonoptera physalus) – possible; Bryde's whale (Balaeonoptera edeni) – possible; blue whale (Balaeonoptera musculus) – possible; humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) – possible; southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) – possible. Mr. Koonjul stressed that the Mauritian government does not intend to resettle Chagossians on Diego Garcia. [citation needed], Naval Security Group detachment Diego Garcia was disestablished on 30 September 2005. A local government as normally envisioned does not exist. ‘Hello, my wonderful social justice warriors’: School sued over critical race theory instruction, American Thinker, conservative blog, apologizes for 'completely false' Dominion Voting articles, HHS Secretary Alex Azar to Trump: Capitol raid will 'tarnish' our health legacy, Pa. election worker in discarded ballots case won't be charged, prosecutor says, Click [139] Formally, the base is known as Naval Support Facility Diego Garcia (the US activity) or Permanent Joint Operating Base (PJOB) Diego Garcia (the UK's term). [112], Of the 36 native vascular plants on Diego Garcia, 12 are trees, five are shrubs, seven are dicotyledon herbs, three are grasses, four are vines, and five are ferns.[113]. From June through September, the influence of the Southeast trades is felt, with speeds of 10–15 knots. Several months later, Pope Francis renewed pressure on London. In 1970, the island was leased to the United States, and developed as a joint U.S.-UK air and naval refueling and support station during the cold war. It was one of the "Dependencies" of the British Colony of Mauritius until the Chagos Islands were detached for inclusion in the newly created British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) in 1965. In addition, near-shore coral reefs and an algal platform may have dissipated much of the waves' impact. [124], The island hosts introduced bird species from many regions, including cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis), Indian barred ground dove, also called the zebra dove (Geopelia striata), turtle dove (Nesoenas picturata), Indian mynah (Acridotheres tristis), Madagascar fody (Foudia madagascariensis), and chickens (Gallus gallus).[125]. [84] The continuous portion of the atoll rim stretches 64 km (40 mi) from one end to the other, enclosing a lagoon 21 km (13 mi) long and up to 11 km (7 mi) wide, with a 6 km (4 mi) pass opening at the north. On Diego Garcia today, the military base uses over 100 shallow "horizontal" wells to produce over 560,000 l per day from the "Cantonment" lens on the northwest arm of the island—sufficient water for western-style usage for a population of 3,500. The United States requested an unpopulated island belonging to the UK to avoid political difficulties with newly independent countries, and ultimately the UK and United States agreed that Diego Garcia was a suitable location. Throughout their recorded history, the plantations of the Chagos Archipelago had a population of approximately 1,000 individuals, about two-thirds of whom lived on Diego Garcia. The base serves as a staging area for the buildup or resupply of military forces prior to an operation. [47] No current agreement exists on how many of the evacuees met the criteria to be an Ilois, and thus be an indigenous person at the time of their removal, but the UK and Mauritian governments agreed in 1972 that 426 families,[48] numbering 1,151 individuals,[40] were due compensation payments as exiled Ilois. This detachment provides base telephone communications, base network services (Local Network Services Center), pier connectivity services, and an AN/GSC-39C SHF satellite terminal, operates the Hydroacoustic Data Acquisition System, and performs on-site maintenance for the remotely operated Air Force HF-GCS terminal. [52] During combat operations from the atoll against Afghanistan (2001–2006) and Iraq (2003–2006), a number of allied militaries were based on the island including Australian,[53] Japanese, and the Republic of Korea. “This joint facility plays a critical role in maintaining regional and international peace and security. [75], Manfred Nowak, one of five of the United Nations Special Rapporteur on torture, said that credible evidence exists supporting allegations that ships serving as black sites have used Diego Garcia as a base. The island was one of 33 emergency landing sites worldwide for the NASA Space Shuttle. It has been described as the most strategically vital U.S. military installation in the world, but the Diego Garcia air base is at the center of a bitter geopolitical fight over colonialism, national security and human rights, a fight that has pitted Washington and London against virtually the rest of the world. At the outer edge of the reef shelf, the bottom slopes very steeply into deep water, at some locations dropping to more than 450 m (1,500 ft) within 1 km (0.62 mi) of the shore. Currently, three lizards and one toad are known to inhabit Diego Garcia, and possibly one snake. To have been introduced by human activity total land area ( excluding peripheral reefs ) is around 30 (! 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